Dividends receivable are recognised when the right to receive payment is established.
The results of subsidiaries are included for the duration of the period in which the group exercises control over the subsidiary. All intercompany transactions and resultant profits or losses between group companies are eliminated on consolidation. Where necessary, accounting policies for subsidiaries are changed to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the group. If it is not practical to change the policies, the appropriate adjustments are made on consolidation to ensure consistency within the group.
The results of structured entities that, in substance, are controlled by the group, are consolidated.
The company carries its investments in subsidiaries at cost, including transaction costs and initial fair value of contingent consideration arising on acquisition date, less accumulated impairment losses. Subsequent fair value remeasurements of the contingent consideration are recognised in profit or loss.
Business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method as at the acquisition date, that is, when control is transferred to Exxaro. The group controls an entity when the group is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity. In assessing control, Exxaro takes into consideration potential voting rights that are currently exercisable. The group also assesses existence of control where it does not have more than 50% of the voting power, but is able to govern the financial and operating policies by virtue of de facto control.
De facto control may arise in circumstances where the size of the group’s voting rights relative to the size and dispersion of holdings of other shareholders give the group the power to govern the financial and operating activities.
22.214.171.124 Changes in ownership interest in subsidiaries without change in control
Transactions with non-controlling interests that do not result in loss of control are accounted for as equity transactions, that is, as transactions with the owners in their capacity as owners. The difference between the fair value of any consideration paid and the relevant share acquired of the carrying value of net assets of the subsidiary is recorded in equity. Gains or losses on the acquisition of non-controlling interests are also recorded in equity.
126.96.36.199 Disposal of subsidiaries
When the group ceases to have control, any retained interest in the entity is remeasured to its fair value at the date when control is lost, with the change in carrying amount recognised in profit or loss. The fair value is the initial carrying amount for the purposes of subsequent accounting for the retained interest as an associate, joint venture or financial asset. In addition, any amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income in respect of that entity are accounted for as if the group had directly disposed of the related assets and liabilities. This may mean that amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss.
188.8.131.52 Foreign operations
The results and financial position of all the group entities (none of which have the currency of a hyper-infl ationary economy at or for the year ended 31 December 2019 and 2018) that have a functional currency different from the presentation currency are translated into the presentation currency as follows:
Exchange differences on translation are accounted for in other comprehensive income. These differences will be recognised in profit or loss upon realisation of the underlying operation.
On consolidation, exchange differences arising from the translation of the net investment in foreign operations (ie the reporting entity’s interest in the net assets of that operation), and of borrowing and other currency instruments designated as hedges of such instruments, are taken to other comprehensive income. When a foreign operation is sold, exchange differences that were recorded in other comprehensive income are recognised in profit or loss.
184.108.40.206 Investments in share-based payments
Exxaro has an agreement with its subsidiary companies to charge the subsidiaries for the equity compensation share schemes (refer Chapter 14) granted to the subsidiaries’ employees.
The movement in equity in the company’s financial statements relating to the recharge of the share-based payments of subsidiaries is accounted for against investments in subsidiaries and is eliminated on consolidation for group reporting purposes.
220.127.116.11 Impairment of investments in subsidiaries
The carrying amounts of assets are reviewed whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount is estimated as the higher of the fair value less costs of disposal and the value-in-use.
A previously recognised impairment loss is reversed (or partially reversed) if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. However, not to an amount higher than the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised in prior years.