9.1.1 INVESTMENTS IN ASSOCIATES AND JOINT ARRANGEMENTS
Associates are those entities in which the group has significant influence, but not control nor joint control, over the financial and operating policies. Significant influence is presumed to exist when Exxaro holds between 20% and 50% of the voting rights of another entity, however, the determination of whether significant influence exists is also subject to the consideration of other facts and circumstances which are a matter of judgement.
Joint arrangements are arrangements in which the group has joint control, established by contracts requiring unanimous consent for decisions on the activities that significantly affect the arrangements’ returns. Joint arrangements are classified and accounted for as follows:
The company carries its investments in associates and joint ventures at cost less accumulated impairment losses.
The cost of investments in associates and joint ventures is the fair value at the date of acquisition or the fair value at the date of loss of control of a former subsidiary where the company retains an associate or joint venture interest in the former subsidiary. For group, investments in associates and joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method and are recognised initially at cost. The cost of the investments includes transaction costs.
The group financial statements include Exxaro’s share of the profit or loss and other comprehensive income of equity-accounted investees, after adjustments to align the accounting policies with those of Exxaro, from the date that significant influence commences until the date that significant influence ceases.
The cumulative post-acquisition movements in profit or loss and other comprehensive income are adjusted against the carrying amount of the investment in the group financial statements.
The group’s interest in associates and joint ventures is carried in the statements of financial position at an amount that reflects its share of the net assets and the goodwill on acquisition.
Dilution gains and losses arising on investments in associates are recognised in profit or loss.
Unrealised gains from downstream transactions with equity-accounted investees are eliminated against the investment to the extent of Exxaro’s interest in the investee. Unrealised gains from upstream transactions with equity-accounted investees are eliminated against related assets to the extent of Exxaro’s interest in the investee.
Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.