Financial assets are classified in the following measurement categories:
The classification depends on the business model for managing the financial assets as well as the contractual terms of the cash flows.
For financial assets measured at fair value, gains and losses will either be recorded in profit or loss or OCI. For investments in equity instruments that are not held for trading, this will depend on whether an irrevocable election has been made at the time of initial recognition to account for the equity investment at FVOCI.
Debt investments are reclassified when, and only when, the business model for managing those assets change.
At initial recognition, a financial asset is measured at its fair value, plus, in the case of a financial asset not at FVPL, transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset. Transaction costs of financial assets carried at FVPL are expensed in profit or loss.
Financial assets with embedded derivatives are considered in their entirety when determining whether their cash flows are SPPI.
Subsequent measurement of debt instruments depends on the business model applied for managing the asset and the cash flow characteristics of the asset. Currently there are two measurement categories into which debt instruments are classified, as summarised in the table below. There are no debt instruments classified as FVOCI.
| Business model
and cash flow
| Movements in
||Financial assets that are held for collection of contractual cash flows where those cash flows represent SPPI.||Interest income is included in finance income using the effective interest rate method. Foreign exchange gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss and presented in operating expenses.||Gains or losses arising on derecognition are recognised directly in profit or loss and presented in operating expenses.||Impairment losses are presented as a separate line item in the notes to the statement of comprehensive income. The impairment losses are considered to be immaterial and therefore have not been presented as a separate line on the face of the statement of comprehensive income.|
||Financial assets that do not meet the criteria for amortised cost or FVOCI.||Gains and losses on a debt investment that is subsequently measured at FVPL are recognised in profit or loss and presented on a net basis within operating expenses in the period in which it arises. Interest income and dividends are recognised in profit or loss.||Gains or losses arising on derecognition are recognised directly in profit or loss and presented in operating expenses.||Not applicable as measured at fair value.|
Equity investments are subsequently measured at fair value. Management has elected to present fair value gains and losses on equity investments in OCI. There is no subsequent reclassification of fair value gains and losses to profit or loss following the derecognition of the investment. Dividends from these investments continue to be recognised in profit or loss as income from financial assets when the right to receive payment is established.
Changes in the fair value of financial assets at FVPL are recognised in operating expenses in the statements of comprehensive income. Impairment losses (and reversal of impairment losses) on equity investments measured at FVOCI are not reported separately from other changes in fair value.
ECLs associated with debt instruments carried at amortised cost are assessed on a forward-looking basis. The impairment methodology applied depends on whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk.
ECLs are a probability-weighted estimate of credit losses. Credit losses are measured as the present value of all cash shortfalls (ie the difference between the cash flows receivable in accordance with the contract and the cash flows that are expected to be received). ECLs are discounted at the effective interest rate of the financial asset.
ECL allowances are measured on either of the following bases:
For trade receivables, the simplified approach permitted by IFRS 9 is applied, which requires lifetime ECLs to be recognised from initial recognition of the trade receivables. To measure the ECLs, trade receivables are grouped based on shared credit risk characteristics (corporate entities, small to medium enterprises and public sector entities) and the days past due to assess significant increase in credit risk. In addition, forward-looking macro-economic conditions and factors are considered when determining the ECLs for trade receivables, namely trading conditions in the relevant domestic markets and international coal market, relevant domestic prices and export coal prices as well as economic growth and inflationary outlook in the short term. Trade receivables are written off when there is no reasonable expectation of recovery. Indicators that there is no reasonable expectation of recovery include, among others, the failure of a debtor to engage in a repayment plan and failure to make contractual payments for a period of greater than 120 days past due.
For other financial assets measured at amortised cost, the ECL is based on the 12-month ECL allowance or a lifetime ECL allowance. The 12-month ECL allowance is the portion of lifetime ECL allowances that result from default events on a financial instrument that are possible within 12 months after the reporting date. However, when there has been a significant increase in credit risk since origination, the ECL will be based on the lifetime ECL allowance.
Credit risk on a financial asset is assumed to have increased significantly if it is more than 30 days past due.
A financial asset is considered to be in default when contractual payments are 90 days past due. However, in certain cases, a financial asset is considered to be in default when internal or external information indicates that the outstanding contractual amounts are unlikely to be received in full before taking into account any credit enhancements held over the financial asset.
The financial assets measured at amortised cost are categorised as follows:
|Category||Definition||Basis for recognition of ECL allowance|
|Performing||Counterparty has a low risk of default and a strong capacity to meet contractual cash flows of principle and/or interest (where applicable).||12-month ECLs: where the expected lifetime of a financial asset measured at amortised cost is less than 12 months, ECLs are measured based on its expected lifetime.|
|Under-performing||There is a significant increase in credit risk of the counterparty since initial recognition. A significant increase in credit risk is presumed if principle and/or interest (where applicable) payments are 30 to 90 days past due.||Lifetime ECLs|
|Non-performing||Counterparty has a high risk of default and there is a high probability that the counterparty will be unable to meet contractual cash flows of principal and/or interest (where applicable). There has been a further significant increase in credit risk since recognition. A further significant increase in credit risk is presumed if the principle and/or interest (where applicable) repayments are more than 90 days past due.||Lifetime ECLs|
|Write-off||There is no reasonable expectation that the principle and/or interest (where applicable) will be recovered.||Financial asset measured at amortised cost is written off.|
Derivative positions may be entered into to manage exposures to certain financial risks such as interest rate, commodity price and foreign currency risks.
Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into and subsequently remeasured to fair value at the end of each reporting period. The resulting gain or loss is recognised immediately in profit or loss unless the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument and found to be effective, in which event the timing of the recognition in profit or loss depends on the nature of the hedge relationship.
On initial recognition, when the transaction price differs from the fair value of other observable current market transactions in the same instrument or based on the valuation technique whose variables include only data from observable markets, the difference between the transaction price and fair value is recognised immediately in profit or loss. In cases where fair value is determined using data which is not observable, the difference between the transaction price and model value is only recognised in profit or loss when the inputs become observable, namely when the instrument is derecognised or over the life of the transaction.
Counterparty risk from derivative transactions is taken into account when reporting the fair value of derivative positions. The adjustment to the fair value is known as the DVA.
A derivative with a positive fair value is recognised as a financial asset whereas a derivative with a negative fair value is recognised as a financial liability. Derivatives are not offset in the financial statements unless there is both a legally enforceable right and intention to offset.
A derivative that is not designated, nor found to be effective as a hedging instrument, is presented as a non-current financial asset or a non-current financial liability if the remaining maturity of the instrument is more than 12 months and not due to be realised or settled within 12 months. Other derivatives not designated, nor found to be effective as a hedging instrument, are presented as current financial assets or current financial liabilities.
The group has designated as cash flow hedges, and found to be effective, its interest rate swaps that cover a portion of the interest rate cash flows on certain of the project financing interest-bearing borrowings.
At inception of the hedge relationship, the risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedged transactions, as well as the economic relationship between the hedging instruments and hedged items (including whether changes in the cash flows of the hedging instruments are expected to offset changes in the cash flows of hedged items) is documented.
The effectiveness of the hedging instrument offsetting changes in cash flows of the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk is assessed and documented at inception and on an ongoing basis. The hedge relationship is determined to be effective when all of the following requirements are met:
If a hedging relationship ceases to meet the hedge effectiveness requirement relating to the hedge ratio but the risk management objective for that designated hedging relationship remains the same, the hedge ratio of the hedging relationship is adjusted (ie rebalances the hedge) so that it meets the qualifying criteria again.
The full fair value of a derivative designated and found to be effective as a hedging instrument is classified as:
The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognised in OCI and accumulated in the cash flow hedge reserve within equity, but limited to the cumulative change in fair value of the hedged item from inception of the hedge. The cumulative change in fair value of the hedged item includes the portion of the designation date fair value (at acquisition date) of the hedged instrument that has been settled since the inception of the hedging relationship. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in profit or loss.
Amounts previously recognised in OCI and accumulated in equity are reclassified to profit or loss in the periods when the hedged item affects profit or loss, in the same line as the recognised hedged item, namely finance costs.
Furthermore, in cases where it is expected that some or all of the loss accumulated in the cash flow hedge reserve will not be recovered in the future, that amount is immediately reclassified to profit or loss in operating expenses.
Hedge accounting is discontinued only when the hedging relationship (or a part thereof) ceases to meet the qualifying criteria (after rebalancing, if applicable). This includes instances when the hedging instrument expires or is sold, terminated or exercised. The discontinuation is accounted for prospectively. Any gain or loss recognised in OCI and accumulated in the cash flow hedge reserve at that time remains in equity and is reclassified to profit or loss when the forecast transaction occurs. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the gain or loss accumulated in the cash flow hedge reserve is reclassified immediately to profit or loss.
Undrawn loan commitments are commitments under which, over the duration of the commitment, the group and company are required to provide a loan with pre-specified terms to the counterparty. These contracts are in the scope of the ECL requirements of IFRS 9.
When estimating 12-month or lifetime ECLs for undrawn loan commitments, the group and company estimates the expected portion of the loan commitment that will be drawn down over 12 months or its expected life, respectively. The ECL is then based on the present value of the expected shortfalls in cash flows if the loan is drawn down, based on a probability-weighting. The cash shortfalls include the realisation of any collateral. The expected cash shortfalls are discounted at an approximation to the expected effective interest rate on the loan.