The results of subsidiaries are included for the duration of the period in which the group exercises control over its subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and resultant profits or losses between group companies are eliminated on consolidation. Where necessary, accounting policies for subsidiaries are changed to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the group. If it is not practical to change the policies, the appropriate adjustments are made on consolidation to ensure consistency within the group.
The results of structured entities that, in substance, are controlled by the group, are consolidated.
The company carries its investments in subsidiaries at cost, including transaction costs and initial fair value measurements of contingent consideration arising on acquisition date, less accumulated impairment losses. Subsequent fair value remeasurements of the contingent consideration are recognised in profit or loss.
For company, when a business combination is achieved in stages, the acquisition date carrying value of the previously held equity interest is accumulated with the cost of the new equity interest acquired.
For group, business combinations are accounted for using the acquisition method as at the acquisition date, that is, when control is transferred to Exxaro. The group controls an entity when the group is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity. In assessing control, Exxaro takes into consideration potential voting rights that are currently exercisable. The group also assesses existence of control where it does not have more than 50% of the voting power, but is able to govern the financial and operating policies by virtue of de facto control.
Transactions with NCIs that do not result in loss of control are accounted for as transactions with the owners in their capacity as owners. The difference between the fair value of any consideration paid and the relevant share acquired in the carrying value of net assets of the subsidiary is recorded in equity. Gains or losses on the acquisition of NCIs are also recognised in equity.
When the group ceases to have control, any retained interest in the entity is remeasured to its fair value at the date when control is lost, with the change in carrying amount recognised in profit or loss. The fair value is the initial carrying amount for the purposes of subsequent accounting for the retained interest as an associate, JV or financial asset.
In addition, any amounts previously recognised in OCI in respect of that entity are accounted for as if the group had directly disposed of the related assets and liabilities. This may mean that amounts previously recognised in OCI are reclassified to profit or loss.
The results and financial position of all the group entities (none of which have the currency of a hyper-inflationary economy at or for the year ended 31 December 2022 and 2021) that have a functional currency different from the presentation currency are translated into the presentation currency as follows:
Exchange differences on translation are accounted for in OCI. These differences will be recognised in profit or loss upon realisation of the underlying operation.
On consolidation, exchange differences arising from the translation of the net investment in foreign operations (ie the reporting entity's interest in the net assets of that operation), and of borrowing and other currency instruments designated as hedges of such instruments, are taken to OCI. When a foreign operation is sold, exchange differences that were recorded in OCI are recognised in profit or loss.
Exxaro has an agreement with its subsidiary companies to charge the subsidiaries for the equity compensation share schemes (Refer Chapter 14) granted to the subsidiaries' employees.
The movement in equity in the company's financial statements relating to the recharge of the share-based payments of subsidiaries is accounted for against investments in subsidiaries and is eliminated on consolidation for group reporting purposes.
A business combination involving entities or businesses under common control is a business combination in which all of the combining entities or businesses are ultimately controlled by the same party or parties both before and after the business combination, and that control is not transitory.
For common control transactions, the circumstances of each transaction are evaluated to determine whether either the acquisition or predecessor accounting method is most appropriate. When the transaction is between wholly owned companies the predecessor accounting method is applied. Under this method the assets and liabilities of the combining entities are not adjusted to fair value but are rather transferred at their carrying amounts at the date of the transaction.
For company, for common control transactions, in which a subsidiary (acquiree) is disposed of for no consideration (share for share transaction) to another subsidiary (the acquirer), the carrying value of the acquiree is derecognised and the increased investment in the acquirer recognised at the same value.